Different Types of Power of Attorney

Although power of attorney is essentially handing control of your affairs over to another person, there are different uses of the position which vary depending on the situation. These largely depend on the reason behind power of attorney being transferred from the ‘principal’, the individual who wishes to relinquish control of their affairs, and the ‘attorney-at-fact’, the person who takes control of the principal’s business and legal dealings.

Non-Durable POA
Non-durable power of attorney is used for short-term transactions, which for whatever reason the principal cannot handle themselves. Any such power of attorney that is non-durable has an expiration, primarily when the principal becomes incapacitated for some reason and is no longer able to give permission for the power of attorney to continue, nor can they revoke it. Usually, non durable power of attorney is limited to a specific time frame, in which any particular deal that is needed to be completed is given time to be dealt with. When this particular instance is complete, power returns to the principal.

Non-durable POA is effective immediately.

Durable POA
This type of power of attorney is similar to non-durable power of attorney, only it continues in the event that the principal becomes incapacitated or mentally ill. All powers of attorney come to an end when the principal dies, but durable power of attorney continues right up to that point. Power of attorney that is durable is often used in terminally ill cases, where the principal asks their attorney-at-fact to allow any lifesaving equipment to be removed or authorize a Do Not Resuscitate

Durable POA is effective immediately.

Springing POA
Springing power of attorney is used in cases where the principal cannot actively give permission, either verbally or in writing, for someone to act as their attorney-at-fact. To obtain springing power of attorney, a doctor must certify that the principal is incapable of thinking for themselves and an attorney-in-fact is required. Springing power of attorney is used predominantly in cases of sudden deterioration of health, such as deterioration of a mental illness or a serious accident.

These are the three main types of power of attorney, governing time and how the power is assigned. However, power of attorney does not have to be granted for all of the principal’s affairs – it can sometimes only apply to one aspect, such as financial. The differences are as follows:

Special or Limited POA
Predominantly used with non-durable power of attorney, special or limited power of attorney is used for specific cases. It often just applies to financial dealings or a specific property sale, and though an attorney-in-fact is appointed, they have no control over any aspect of the principal’s life apart from the sector they are charged with.

Any other type of POA is called General Attorney, which applies to all affairs and dealings of the principal.

Health Care POA
This is a specific power of attorney that is used for those who are terminally or mentally ill, and gives the attorney-in-fact power over medical decisions but nothing more. It is similar to special attorney, though is specifically used for medicinal purposes.

Disclaimer: This article is for informational and entertainment purposes only, and should not be construed as legal advice on any subject matter.

How Do People Select Rhode Island Divorce Attorneys to Interview?

Let’s face it. Rhode Island lawyers and lawyers in general are officers of the court. We’re supposed to be servants of the public. Yet at the same same we’re independent practitioners and we we’ve got a job to do and money to bring in through our private practice or we don’t survive.

It’s no wonder Rhode Island Lawyers are viewed with skepticism and even cynicism, especially when it’s time to hire one and you’re not sure who to hire or what to do. Here you are, you have a legal issue that needs to be addressed and you take the time to try to identify an attorney who will meet your needs.

It’s easy for questions to surface as to whether the attorney you’re interviewing is looking out for your best interests or simply looking out for his or her own interests and making some money to put food on his or her own table. It is, in fact, appropriate for you to question the attorney’s motives. The best time to do that is at the time you interview the attorney.

You should know that when you set up an appointment to see an attorney, YOU are interviewing the attorney just as much as the attorney is interviewing YOU.

So how do people generally go about choosing an attorney?

1) A referral from a friend or family member.

This is a good source of referrals for the attorney, but is the attorney right for YOU? What did the attorney do for that friend or family member who made the referral? Did the attorney settle a personal injury case? That’s not going to do you much good if you need someone for a family law matter. If your referral isn’t to an attorney that regularly practices in the area of law you need and it isn’t from a person who used those same type of family law services then the referral is “empty”, in other words a referral should be better than just hunting around in the yellow pages. It should provide some valuable reassurance that the attorney you’ve been referred to, can and has already provided valuable an competent services to the person who is making the referral to you, and that those services are in the area of law that you need help with. Without that criteria, the referral is “Empty”.

2) An advertisement in the yellow pages.

This is of course an even less effective way to select a suitable lawyer to interview than the referral from a friend or family member who did not use the attorney for the same type of legal services that you are in need of. When you just select attorneys out of the yellow pages you will most likely do like everyone else does. You select the attorney based on the advertisement itself, particularly its size and its wording. Unfortunately neither of these are indicators that the attorney is competent or will serve you well in the area of law you are in need of. Imagine that you are in need of a divorce attorney and you select the attorney’s advertisement that is the largest and includes the words “Estates”, “Personal Injury Cases”, and Divorces, etc… with 15 years in practice”.

First, that advertisement probably cost quite a bit since even small advertisements in the yellow pages run $3,000 to $5,000 a year. From there you can take a guess who has to pay for just that single marketing ad. That’s right…that attorney’s clients. You can almost certainly plan to pay more for an attorney with a decent sized yellow page ad. Conversely, that attorney might be worth it if you select just the right one.

Second, the “15 years in practice” tells you one of two things. Either that you are going to pay more for those years of experience or that he has been doing “something” law-related for 15 years. I know attorneys who have been in practice for 20 years and have handled perhaps 10 divorces in that amount of time. By the same token the advertisement above wouldn’t seem as impressive if you knew that the attorney only handled 4 divorces within his 15 years of practice. That might not want to be the attorney you want to represent you if you need a Rhode Island Divorce attorney and complex divorce issues regarding pensions, alimony and tax consequences on the sale of a home come into play.

3) Search for the kind of Rhode Island lawyer you want on the internet.

This is becoming more and more the method of searching for attorneys in the technoliterate sector of society. Those who choose this method of searching can go to Google.com or another search site of their choice and type in the various terms they want to search on. Searchers can also vary their search terms if the results do not suit them. The main benefit to searching the internet to find Rhode Island attorneys to interview is the third party nature of the ranking system. In a search system such as Google.com, the primary listings are ranked by criteria that are not controlled by attorney. It is Google’s system that analyzes the attorney’s websites and/or pages and determines from there whether the attorney’s website matches the criteria you are looking for. In this way you are getting an unbiased selection of attorney websites to review.

Secondarily, if you are searching on the internet for an attorney, you will know if the attorney has a website or not. This will at least give you some indication that the attorney has kept up with technology. If he or she has done so then if it is important to be able to communicate with your attorney by email this may be a factor in your decision to interview that particular attorney. The information on the website of the attorney is also likely to be the most focused regarding what his or her primary practice areas. In some instances the attorney’s website will provide the most valuable information about the attorney in order to decide which attorneys to interview.

10 FAQ’s for Attorneys Appointed Under a UK Lasting Power of Attorney

Lasting Powers of Attorney – The role of the ATTORNEY – UK

Have you been asked to be an Attorney and are you wondering what this really means? Are you concerned that you don’t know what to do?

This article explains your role and answers some key questions.

Lets start with what is expected of you as an Attorney.

FAQ’s

1. What does an Attorney have to do?

An Attorney is someone who has the authority to make decisions and act someone’s behalf.

So, you would be expected to make decisions and carry out tasks on behalf of the person who signed the Lasting Power of Attorney.

The following information should give you a good understanding of purpose of an LPA, but first, a little more background.

2. Who can be an Attorney?

Anyone over 18, you can be a friend or relative and people frequently ask their spouse to do it. Normally it is someone they trust and who knows them reasonably well. You can choose a professional attorney who will be paid for their service.

3. When do I actually have to do something? When do I become the attorney?

If the person with the LPA becomes too ill to look after their own affairs, then you as the attorney can start to make decisions and manage their affairs for them.

We call this losing capacity. You lose capacity if you are unable to make decisions.

4. How can I tell if someone has lost capacity?

Often medical staff will be the first to declare that someone has lost capacity. But you should still consider for yourself whether you think that they are able to make a decision. The law gives guidance on decision making:

  • Are they unable to understand information relevant to the decision?
  • Can they retain that information?
  • Can they weight that information as part of the process of making a decision?
  • Can they communicate it (whether by talking, using sign language or any other means)?

It may be that the incapacity is only temporary, but you may still be required to make decisions for them if they are incapacitated for a short time.

There is more information in Part 3 of the Mental Capacity Act Please bear in mind that the reason for the incapacity could be physical or mental, it could be due to accident, illness or for another reason. What is important is whether they are “incapacitated”.

If you are unsure, you must get further advice. Talk to medical professionals who are treating the person who made the LPA.

Please note that it does not matter if the person is making unwise or unexpected decisions, you may not agree with them but that doesn’t mean they lack capacity. Remember, you can only act when they are no longer able to make decisions.

As an attorney you should try to help the person who signed the LPA to make their own decisions if possible.

Useful information on the capacity to make decisions can be found in the Mental Capacity Act Part 3

5. What decisions can I make? What does “manage affairs” mean?

The first thing you should do is look at the LPA document. There are two types and you may be an attorney under one or both types of LPA.

  1. Lasting Power of Attorney – Health and Wellbeing or,
  2. Lasting Power of Attorney – Property and Financial Affairs.

If you are an Attorney under a Health and Wellbeing LPA you may be asked to make decisions about various aspects of the persons personal life. For example, you could be asked to make decisions on what medical treatment they receive or where they are to live, even what they eat and wear. You will only do this if the donor has lost the capacity (ability) to make the decisions for themselves.

If you are and Attorney under a Property and Financial Affairs LPA you can make decisions about money and property, you can pay bills, collect benefits and even sell the persons home for them. You can use authority this at any time, the person making the LPA does not need to have lost capacity.

6. Doesn’t this give me a lot of responsibility?

Yes, it does. You are in a very privileged position to help someone you care for. The LPA gives you the power to access someone else’s money and property and make intimate decisions over their personal lives.

However, you cannot abuse your position. You are legally obliged to always act in the persons Best Interests. This means you can only act on their behalf and you cannot make any decisions that aren’t in their best interests. You must also take reasonable care when making the decisions.

For guidance on what “best interests” means, you should look at Part 4 of the Mental Capacity Act.

Checklist:

  • Has the LPA been properly stamped by the Office of The Public Guardian? The LPA must have been completed and registered with the Office of the Public Guardian before you can do anything as an attorney.

Read through LPA document.

  • Look at any restrictions in the LPA has the person written anything in it? Look at page 6, section 5 of the LPA and make sure you comply with these restrictions. At section 6 the donor may have given the Attorneys guidance. This is does not have to be followed but should give you an idea of what the donor would have wanted if they still had capacity and it may help you decide what is in their best interests.
  • Does the document allow you to make decisions alone or do you have to make them with someone else “jointly”? You must make sure you comply with these directions. If it says “severally” this means that each attorney can act separately to the other attorney(s). Look at the LPA on page 5. You need to make sure that you can communicate with any other attorneys, especially where need to make decisions together.

Are you clear on your role and responsibilities? If not, have a look at chapters 4 and 5 of the Code of Practice of the Mental Capacity Act.

7. What happens if I have to spend my own money?

As a donor you are always entitled to claim your reasonable out-of-pocket expenses that you incur on their behalf. You should always keep a record and receipts for these expenses.

The donor may wish to pay a professional attorney for their services, in which case this will be detailed in the LPA on page 6 at section 7.

8. Do I have to be an Attorney?

No, you don’t. It is always better to tell someone that you don’t want to do it at the time they are making the LPA, so that they can choose someone else. If you withdraw later it can cause many problems and a lot of confusion.

9. Can I operate a bank account for the donor (person who signed the LPA)

Yes, you can if the LPA is a Property or Financial Affairs LPA. Always look at the guidance and restrictions in the document. Also make sure that you only use their money for their best interests.

If you are managing a bank account for someone else and finding the bank is not being helpful, then have a look for the “British Bankers Association Guidance for Consumers”. It gives guidance to you and the bank to help the attorney to access an account. You may wish to take it to the bank to remind them of their role.

10. Can I act on behalf of a parent, child or friend who has completed but not registered the Lasting Power of Attorney?

No, unfortunately it doesn’t matter how much you care for them or how much they would like you to help. It must be registered or you will not have the authority you need to conduct their affairs. In these circumstances you will unfortunately have to apply to the Court of Protection for the authority to act. They have to make a decision who should help and they usually place restrictions on the role of the attorney.